December 15, 2020

Covering COVID-19is a daily Poynter briefing of story ideas about the coronavirus and other timely topics for journalists, written by senior faculty Al Tompkins. Sign up这里to have it delivered to your inbox every weekday morning.


The issue came up in Poynter’s “Reporting on the COVID-19 Vaccines“网络研讨会周一当Patsy Stinchfield是一名注册护士和疫苗安全专家时,告诉记者,表明将针刺入人民的武器可能是公众的迟交。

Fear of needles may be more common than you think.关于25% of adultsare afraid of needles, and around 7% of adults avoid immunizations because of their fear.There is a fairly wide body of researchon this topic that found:

  • The majority of children exhibited needle fear, while prevalence estimates for needle fear ranged from 20-50% in adolescents and 20-30% in young adults.
  • In general, needle fear decreased with increasing age.
  • Both needle fear and needle phobia were more prevalent in females than males.
  • Avoidance of influenza vaccination because of needle fear occurred in 16% of adult patients, 27% of hospital employees, 18% of workers at long-term care facilities and 8% of health care workers at hospitals.
  • 在经历venipuncture,献血和需要注射的慢性条件的那些中,针刺恐惧是常见的。

There are some theories that we have a survival instinct not to be punctured by stuff, so taking a shot is an unnatural act for humans (and yesI have a link to actual clinical studiesabout that).

Trypanophobia becomes a big problem when people fear the needle more than the disease they are trying to prevent. And children may pick up cues from their parents, so we must be really thoughtful about how we talk about our fears because others are listening.

PSYCOM有A.可以为注射准备自己的方式列表if you fear needles:

Take the cognitive approach. Psychiatrist Michael D. McGee, MD advises contemplating the worst that can happen and remembering that an injection is only a temporary discomfort. “Remind yourself that a needle is painful for a second but when you process and fully understand what the suffering would be like if you did not get the injection, it can help you be more realistic,” Dr. McGee explains.


Try mindfulness and meditation. Start with a few minutes of mindfulness and then 14 minutes of meditation. Think of three things that you are grateful for and then imagine your goals, long-term or simple, being accomplished.”

This all may seem melodramatic for those of us who have no issue with needles. But don’t underestimate other people’s phobias. You have no idea what trauma might be behind people’s feelings and memories. By the way,The Conversation describes“某些无针Covid-19疫苗在开发”中“包括一个绷带状的补丁made up of 400 tiny needles, anasal vaccine,作为一个口腔疫苗tablet, and aneedle-free devicethat delivers an mRNA vaccine.”

The history of needles for injection

When I got my flu vaccine a month or more ago, I was quite surprised that I did not feel the shot at all. I mean, not at all. It made me wonder how we got to this point when we can stick a metal thing into human arms and have it not hurt one bit.

We should start by thankingFrancis Rynd,一个爱尔兰的ph值ysician who in 1844 invented a hollow needle and used it to try the first documented injections. Some people also credit Scottish physician Alexander Wood. Rynd’s invention let the drug trickle into the body while Wood used a plunger.rynd没有宣传他的发明, Wood did, and so began the debate on who should get the credit.

To give you an idea of how far we have come, look at the kind of device Rynd used.


Syringes were invented long before hypodermic needles.使用芦苇的古希腊人和罗马人提到了. One guy used a goose quill for veterinary medicine in the 1600s. But the technology, unfortunately, did not include sterilization, so injectables didn’t catch on for quite a while.

Is the coronavirus mutating?

This is not unexpected or unusual for a virus, but the British health secretary told Parliament on Monday that the newest cases of COVID-19 in his country seem to be a new variant of the coronavirus.

The Guardian quotes Secretary Matt Hancock:“初步分析表明,这种变体growing faster than the existing variance. We’ve currently identified over 1,000 cases with this variant, predominantly in the south of England, although cases have been identified in nearly 60 different local authority areas and numbers are increasing rapidly.”


Another vaccine trial hits a snag

As if to underscore the achievement that Pfizer, Moderna and others have and are achieving, drugmakers GlaxoSmithKline and Sanofiannounced Monday他们将必须重新重整他们的冠状病毒疫苗,对老年人更有效。延迟意味着它们不会有药物带来美国食品和药物管理局接近一年。澳大利亚的研究人员也只是放弃了他们的疫苗候选者,因为它在HIV测试中产生了假阳性结果。


Take the vaccine just before your days off

As front-line health care workers sign up to get their COVID-19 vaccines,医院正在建议他们在日期接近日期时注册,以防他们有一种反应,让他们在天气下感到有点。医院和护理家庭有一些担忧,如果整个员工在同一天获得镜头,他们可以看到高旷工。

Journalists may think about this same advice for newsrooms once vaccines become generally available.

Hospitals, as you know, are not getting enough vaccines to inoculate everyone right away sothey are mostly relying on an “honor code”根据他们对病毒的曝光程度有多曝光以及他们可能拥有的健康状况是多少。在弗吉尼亚州夏洛斯维尔的UVA健康处,是第一批接种疫苗的团体之一是在病房里清洁医院房间的工人,其中Covid-19患者最严重的病例受到治疗。

Stealing to survive: shoplifting in a pandemic

一个家庭美元的发言人表示,该连锁店在过去一年中看到了“越来越多的盗窃实例”。(AP照片/ Anita Shole)

Shoplifting typically increases in troubled economic times. It is happening now.

The Washington Post reports:

根据在全国各地十几次零售商,安全专家和警察部门的采访,自春季开始,春季开始,春季始于春季,较高的水平,较高的水平以来,入店行窃表现明显。但是,这对这一趋势有所独特的是,专家们所说的是正在采取的 - 面包,意大利面和婴儿配方的更多钉书钉。

“We’re seeing an increase in low-impact crimes,” said Jeff Zisner, chief executive of workplace security firm Aegis. “It’s not a whole lot of people going in, grabbing TVs and running out the front door. It’s a very different kind of crime — it’s people stealing consumables and items associated with children and babies.”


Dollar Tree and Family Dollar, which often are concentrated in low-income areas, have seen “increasing instances of theft” during the past year, according to spokeswoman Kayleigh Painter. She declined to share specific data or protocols, but said the company is “continually evaluating and enhancing on-premise security and surveillance systems, as well as our associate training.”

In Philadelphia, reports of retail theft jumped about 60 percent, year over year, just after President Trump declared a national emergency in March because of the pandemic. They remained at elevated levels through at least July, according to local police data.

The New York Daily Newstalks with a local grocer:


Goico said his stores have been plagued with shoplifters and estimates that 6% to 7% of his bottom line has disappeared because of it since March. Before COVID-19, he said he’d typically lose about 1% to shoplifters.

Maybe it is not a surprise. The Department of Agriculture says 54 million Americans are struggling with hunger right now — a 45% increase from a year ago. Here is the latest data, which you can use to drill down to the state level (see the state tabs at the bottom of the charts):

入店行窃零售商来说是一个热门话题,一些which are pushing for stronger punishment.NPR explainsthat retailers are pushing states not to raise the dollar amount that is required before a theft is considered a felony.

Retail trade groups have argued that prosecutors should be able to aggregate shoplifting incidents to crack down on repeat offenders. With that same goal, the groups in many states have lobbied in favor of lower thresholds for the value of stolen property that triggers a felony charge.

Opponents of higher felony thresholds argue they encourage more shoplifting because organized groups can simply adjust to stealing more valuable items without fear of facing stiffer charges. In recent years, the Pew Charitable Trustsstudied states提出了他们的门槛,并报告说,在变革之前,财产犯罪率正在下降,并继续下降。

国家零售联合会2020 security surveyfound that shoplifting apprehensions and prosecutions have fallen dramatically since 2015. Meanwhile, the average loss per each shoplifting incident declined only slightly to $270. According to the Insurance Information Institute, most insurance policies do not cover shoplifting but can cover burglaries.


购物者穿着保护面罩,因为他们在弗拉的Ellenton Premium Outles商店走过了社会疏远标志。(AP照片/ Chris O'Meara,文件)

The federal government is about to launcha $250 million advertising campaignthat will run through September 2021 to educate and encourage people to get the COVID-19 vaccine and keep wearing masks and take other precautions. The original plan included using celebrities endorsing the vaccine. That plan was scrapped anda toned-down versionis already running on social media.

Politico reports:

Meanwhile, groups like theCovid Collaborative and the Ad Councilare gearing up to augment government efforts with a $50 million ad campaign in the beginning of next year, including billboards, TV and digital advertisements. The Ad Council has been in touch with the Trump Centers for Disease Control, and Department of Health and Human Services, according to an Ad Council spokesperson.


“媒体现在应该出现在媒体上,”杜克 - 马尔戈斯卫生政策中心的访问高级政策研究员,Hemi Tewarson说。“他们肯定会赶上赶上。”

The process of scheduling, getting and paying for a vaccine

Insurance should cover any administrative fees that hospitals or clinics charge to give people the COVID-19 shots.


NBC News describesa few experiments to deliver the vaccine to the masses:

在路易斯安那州,Ochsner Health一直在运行驱动-Fru流感疫苗诊所,作为卫生系统如何管理Covid-19疫苗的模型。患者以10-15分钟的间隔安排,并拉到一个卫生保健工作者管理疫苗的路边给药站。

In North Dakota, Molly Howell, the state’s immunization program manager, said local health departments are considering using large auditoriums or covered outdoor spaces like car washes. “Being creative about vaccination clinics is a part of the planning process,” she said. “We have to make sure we’re maintaining social distancing while still vaccinating a large number of people.”

Several states are planning to use software programs to assist with scheduling people to get vaccinated. Maryland is using a platform calledPrepModthat allows patients to identify vaccination sites near them, schedule an appointment, and remind them if a second dose is needed.

This is what North Dakota’s PrepMod pagelooks like. Patients will soon be able to use it to search for a vaccination site near them.


It might be worth a moment for you to see howthe Germans are setting up vaccination centers, including one in a big arena. They say it makes sense to have people come to a big central location as long as there is enough space to keep them separated while they get their shots.

Vaccine trial volunteers may get shots earlier

关于20,000 people who volunteered their shoulders to Pfizer to test the vaccine may soon be rewarded. They account for the placebo half of the vaccine’s phase 3 trial who got a saline shot rather than the actual drug. The trial will “unblind” the results this week so participants will learn soon which dose they got.

In the big picture, 20,000 doses might not seem like a huge issue when you consider the hundreds of millions of people who will get the shot,but it has been a hotly debated issue among medical ethicistsfor months and may set the stage for what other drug companies will be expected to do in the weeks to come.

Inspect your local hospital’s records

This is from Jeff Porter, the education director at the Association of Health Care Journalists:



Terms such as “coronavirus,” “corona virus” or “SARS-CoV-2” also can return records, although some may be duplicates if the report uses more than one term. Also, some records may not apply to the pandemic if a reported incident of a coronavirus isn’t the same one that causes COVID-19.

Many of the inspectors cite hospitals for failing to properly screen staff and visitors. Other hospitals have fallen short in managing personal protection equipment. For example, one report says that based on:


The reports identify specific hospitals and, in some instances, dates. They don’t name individuals, but hospital employees often can be identified by title (director of nursing or chief executive officer).


It might matter to some people if celebrities, politicians and Dr. Anthony Fauci get vaccinated in public, but the head of the world’s largest public relations firm says employers may have more influence than anybody.Yahoo Finance reports:

“Employers are believed most readily,” said Richard Edelman, the CEO of Edelman, the world’s biggest PR firm, whose company regularly conducts extensive research about trust and reputation. “We see employers as the spearhead because you’ve seen governments aren’t a particularly trusted source of information at the moment. Too much dissonance. Too many tweets. We need consistency and frequency and calm.” …


虽然公司可以合法实施vaccine mandates, many are unlikely to do so.

Edelman said his company, which has around 7,000 employees, won’t require vaccination, but the company would have to find a way to deal with that.

“Are we going to let you come to work (if you don’t get a vaccine)? I don’t know about that,” he said. “But you can work remote, no problem.”

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